Healthy forests, landscapes, and terrestrial ecosystems provide services that are critical for people and economies, such as biodiversity habitat, clean water, climate regulation, erosion prevention, crop pollination, soil fertility, and flood control. Deforestation and forest and land degradation, however, are threatening these ecosystem services and reducing the productivity of 23% of global land cover. Land degradation impacts an estimated 3.2 billion people worldwide, with 40% of the world’s poorest live on degraded land.
As per a tripartite agreement signed in 2016, the World Bank is supporting a programmatic South-South collaboration between Mozambique and Brazil. Within the framework of this agreement, a knowledge exchange with Brazil was organized in October 2018 to help address the numerous challenges facing the conservation areas in Mozambique. The objectives of the knowledge exchange included:
The objective of the knowledge exchange was for the Indian delegation from Jharkhand to learn how the productive alliances approach in Brazil is improving linkages between small holders and private sector. The Indian delegation comprised of technical experts and administration wing of rural development department which is implementing a similar project in Jharkhand state in India under the name Jharkhand Opportunities in Harnessing Rural Growth Project – JOHAR.
Over 80% of worldwide new coal-fired power plants due to begin operating between now and 2020 will be in middle-income countries in Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines and Pakistan. Together with the existing plants in operation in these countries, this will lock-in 260 gigatons of carbon dioxide emissions over their remaining lifetimes, which would exceed the carbon budget available to the power sector to be consistent with limiting global warming within 2 degrees.
In the ongoing reforms of the education sector in Guatemala and Dominican Republic (DR), there have been challenges in achieving clarity and consensus on the role and responsibilities of school principals. Both Guatemala and DR also face challenges with capacity and technical knowledge needed to professionally develop school principals and school leaders in the face of learning crisis in the countries. Guatemala and DR are two of the lowest performers in the regional learning assessments in both primary and secondary education.
The Government of Argentina (GOA) launched in 2016 the first nation-wide demand-side housing supply program for first-home buyers (the Linea Solucion Casa Propia Program, SCP). The World Bank, as part of the Integrated Habitat and Housing Project (P159929), is supporting the SCP. The SCP provides a lump-sum subsidy to eligible households, which, together with a saving amount and a mortgage loan provided by the open market, is used for the acquisition of a housing unit.
The economic recession in 2015 in Brazil was exacerbated by a weak public sector internal control system (PIC), which was not strong enough to curb corruption. Brazil, whose democratic constitution stemmed only from 1988, needed to learn to how to approach strengthening PIC. In response to Brazil’s request for assistance, the World Bank organized a knowledge exchange for key Brazilian officials to learn from peers in Bulgaria and Croatia, countries which had undergone significant PIC reforms as part of successful efforts to join the European Union (EU).
The World Bank has been supporting improvements to the Nigerian water sector since 2004. Its Country Partnership Strategy (CPS) for fiscal year 2014 to 2017 identified improved access to water supply as central to improvement of health in Nigeria. In coordination with the third World Bank-financed National Urban Water Sector Reform Project (NUWSRP III), key Nigerian officials in the water supply and sewerage (WSS) sector needed help to identify, design, and implement key sector reforms.
The growing and suburbanizing Municipality of the Metropolitan District of Quito (MDMQ), Ecuador needs to improve its transportation systems to keep pace with demand and give poor and vulnerable groups better access to social and economic opportunities. To meet these transportation challenges, MDMQ must implement an Integrated Public Transport System (In Spanish, Sistema Integrado de Transporte Público, or SITP) and coordinate urban and mobility policies.