Climate Action Peer Exchange (CAPE) is a forum for peer learning, knowledge sharing, and mutual advisory support. It brings together ministers and senior technical specialists from finance ministries across the world, as well as World Bank staff and other international experts, to discuss the fiscal challenges involved in implementing the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) established under the 2015 Paris Agreement.
Rapid urbanization has the potential to improve the well-being of societies. If managed prudently, it can transform the development course of economies. But the path of urbanization is also fraught with numerous human development challenges intensified by poverty, economic disparities, lack of housing and basic services, inefficient transport systems and lack of sustainable financing models. The world needs inclusive and sustainable urbanization as recognized by Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) - Goal #11: Sustainable Cities and Communities.
Over 80% of worldwide new coal-fired power plants due to begin operating between now and 2020 will be in middle-income countries in Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, Philippines and Pakistan. Together with the existing plants in operation in these countries, this will lock-in 260 gigatons of carbon dioxide emissions over their remaining lifetimes, which would exceed the carbon budget available to the power sector to be consistent with limiting global warming within 2 degrees.
Health systems around the world are working to tackle the challenge of ageing populations and a rising burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and chronic conditions. These changing demographic and epidemiological profiles are associated with increased needs for long-term care and social care services, in settings that are appropriate and convenient to those who require care.
In the light of rapid economic growth and increasing investments, the Inspectorate Department of Vietnam’s Ministry of Planning and Investment (MPII) faced challenges arising from an increased workload as well as integrity issues including fraud and corruption. Vietnam requested support from the World Bank in strengthening their procurement auditing and inspection systems by learning good practices from other countries. In response to this request, a knowledge exchange with China was organized consisting of a study tour.
Most African countries see industrialization as part of their path to economic growth. Many are developing Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to improve economic performance, but they are experiencing implementation challenges. As a result, there is a growing demand to learn from successful strategies in SEZ development. Building on earlier exchanges and capacity development facilitated by the World Bank, 18 African countries participated in a regional conference with the theme of the role of Free Zones in achieving Millennium Development Goals in Africa.
Even while India is enjoying unprecedented economic growth, as one of the most populous countries in the world a vast number of its citizens still live below the poverty line, especially in rural areas. The government realized that dealing with this problem requires adopting best international practices. Very few poverty reducing models, however, are adaptable on such a large scale. China is the one country with a comparable population and has been widely recognized for its policies to reduce absolute poverty and develop rural areas.
To help reduce poverty, the Government of Vietnam sought to consolidate and modernize social protection programs. Vietnamese officials visited China and India to learn about ways to design, target, and manage social protection and social insurance programs. The visits built consensus on next steps for reform in Vietnam, including possible support for social protection through a Bank lending project.
Learning from Community Driven Development (CDD) Models for Better Economic and Social Development Outcomes
As in many other East Asian countries, the number of people living in poverty in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam has declined in the past decade. However, persisting poverty in less advantaged geographic areas and ethnic groups is still a challenge. The governments of the three countries were eager to gain practical lessons on innovative Community Driven Development (CDD) models that have been successful in several South Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka.
Like other cities in rapidly industrializing Vietnam, fast-growing Ho Chi Minh City must invest in urban transportation, including new and better roads, a metro network, and a modern bus rapid transit (BRT) system. Lacking the full knowledge and skills needed to plan, build, and maintain such a transport network, Vietnam sought the help of the World Bank.